What Are Gross Motor Skills?
- Gross motor skills are the large movements coordinated by the brain and large muscles groups such as arms, legs and trunk.
- Example of gross motor skills: crawling, walking, running, jumping.
- Gross motor skills allow us to explore our environment.
Gross Motor Skills (Birth - 1 Year)
- Raises head and trunk during tummy time for 10 seconds: 1-3 months.
- Rolling from stomach to back: 4 months.
- Rolling from back to stomach: 5 months.
- Independent prop sitting: 5 months.
- Independent upright sitting: 6-7 months.
- Belly crawling: 8-9 months.
- Crawling on hands and knees: 9-10 months.
- Standing at stable surface and walking along furniture: 10 months.
- Independent walking: 12-15 months.
Gross Motor Skills (1 - 2 Years)
- Crawling up stairs: 14-15 months.
- Crawling down stairs: 15-16 months.
- Walking up stairs with 1 hand support: 15-16 months.
- Walking backwards: 18 months.
- Walking down stairs with 1 hand support: 18-20 months.
- Running: 18-24 months.
- Walking sideways: 21-22 months.
- Walking up stairs independent (one or both feet on each step): 23-24 months.
- Jumping on 2 feet forward 4 inches, up 2 inches, down from a height of 6 inches: 19-24 months.
- Kicking a ball: 19-24 months.
- Tandem stance: 19-24 months.
Gross Motor Skills (2-3 Years)
- Walking down stairs independently (one or both feet on each step): 24-25 months.
- Throw tennis ball 7 feet forward: 25-30 months.
- Walking up stairs independently placing only one foot on each step: 31-36 months.
- Jumping on 2 feet forward 24 inches, over obstacles 2 inches high, down from a height of 18 inches: 31-36 months.
- Balances on one foot for 3 seconds: 31-36 months.
- Catches a ball thrown from 5 feet away: 31-36 months.
- Pedals tricycle: 31-36 months.
Gross Motor Skills (3-6 Years)
- Run 45 feet in 6 seconds or less with mature form: 37-42 months.
- Walking down stairs independently placing only one foot on each step: 43-48 months.
- Hopping on one foot: 43-48 months.
- Gallop: 49-54 months.
- Jumping on 2 feet forward 36 inches, over obstacles 10 inches, down from a height 24 inches: 49-60 months.
- Balances on one foot for 10 seconds: 55-60 months.
- Hops 5 times consecutively: 55-60 months.
- Completes 3 sits-up: 55-60 months.
- Completes 8 push-ups: 61-72 months.
- Skipping: 61-72 months.
By Age 6 Months, Child Cannot:
- Elevate head or trunk during tummy time.
- Roll back from stomach, or stomach to back.
- Sit independently for at least 60 seconds.
By Age 12 Months, Child Cannot:
- Crawl on hands and knees.
- Pull up into standing independently at a stable surface, such as couch or coffee table.
- Accept weight onto legs when held by adults.
- Maintain independent standing at a stable surface, such as a couch or coffee table.
By Age 18 Months, Child Cannot:
- Stand independently.
- Walk independently.
By Age 2, Child Cannot:
- Crawl up or down stairs.
- Walk up or down stairs with hand support from adult or rail.
- Throw a ball.
By Age 3-5, Child Cannot:
- Hop on one foot.
- Jump on 2 feet forward or up or down from an object independently.
- Throw a ball 10 feet forward with opposite arm & leg movement.
- Catch a ball using only hands.
- Walk up or down stairs without hand support from adult or rail.
- Pedal a tricycle.
- Balance on one foot for any period of time.
Who Can Help?
If your child is not progressing gross motor skills at age-appropriate rate, you should consult with pediatrician and pediatric therapist. A pediatric physical theraphist can help to determine the underlying causes of your child's delay and will provide individualized interventions to address those limitations.
How To Promote Gross Motor Skills At Home???
- Limit time spent in jumpers, bouncers, walkers, etc. as these can impact a child's strength and gross motor development.
- Allow infants to spend time playing on the floor (with supervision of course!).
- Expose children to a wide variety of movements, textures, surfaces and gross motor expe